Jan. 4th, 2013 | 11:59 pm
(Image credit here.)
For many years, the String Theory has been a popular topic amongst quantum physicists. It explains the beauty of how our universe is interconnected, breaking from the Standard Model that represents atoms as singular, focused points.
Unfortunately, there are several problems with this structure. For one, there is nothing to prove or explain why protons, electrons and neutrons should be confined into a limiting shape of a sphere. For another, it does not efficiently combine quantum mechanics with General Relativity.
A ‘string’ is theorised to be several billionths smaller than the size of an atom. As the name suggests, these strings are in the form of a thread or a loop. It vibrates in varying degrees, and each vibration is unique to another. The way the string vibrates is vital to determine what it will create. Say, the strings that make up an electron will vibrate one way, and the strings that make up a proton will vibrate the other.
The String Theory allows fluidity to the Universe’s structure, and has managed to branch into many other ambitious theories such as the Membrane Theory, Parallel Universes and the Eleven Dimensions, hence why the String Theory has been renowned, cheekily, to be the ‘Theory of Everything’.
Now that sounds like a bizarre claim, and even more bizarre yet is what the theory told us. The idea of having a parallel universe sounds outrageous, incomprehensible to many. But for most theoretical scientists, parallel dimensions was like the perfect key to the lock. How did scientists come to think of the existence of parallel dimensions? Taking the structure of the string into account, the string needs enough room to oscillate and it cannot be restricted to the simple three dimensions. See it like the violin string, as you pluck it, the string appears to be in several places at once. This is what the string theory theory suggests, that the very atoms that make us up can be in several places at once.
Frankly I’m not about to go too in depth with this as there are several other things that I want to cover as well. Recently I’ve managed to formulate a theoretical hypothesis that would combine most, if not all, of the existing theories man has offered to date. This theory in particular focuses a lot on Dark Matter, one of the most puzzling phenomenons in modern science.
What do people know already about Dark Matter?
Essentially, there has been evidence of its presence. Taking a look around you now, the mass that you see, say the table or the chair that you’re sitting on, is what scientists call ‘baryonic matter’. Baryonic matter, astoundingly, only accounts for 5% of the mass in our Universe. Without Dark Matter, we’ll be unable to explain almost 95% of the remaining mass.
This is because of one huge problem, that in fact Dark Matter is ineffectively intangible. It does not reflect light so we are unable to see it, the only way we can identify it is by its gravitational forces.
So what is Dark Matter, really? Is it simply some form of matter that science has not discovered yet? A lot of theories speculate this; some notable candidates are the hypothetical particle WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) and gravitons, the hypothetical particle that explains gravity. I am not dismissing these theories, but there are many flaws in them. The one that I have not only explains the missing mass, but also the increasing rapid expansion rate of the Universe while keeping true to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity.
Last year, OPERA announced the ground-breaking results of neutrinos measured to be faster than the speed of light. A documentary soon followed that, and one theory that struck me was Michael Duff’s connection to M-theory. The M-theory explains that our Universe is in a shape of a membrane, this is drawn from the model of the string and how these connect to create a ‘cloth-like’ structure. In the experiment with OPERA, protons were fired and then split into the fundamental particles. The force needed to split a proton is immense, and therefore throwing the neutrino temporarily out of our dimension into the ‘bulk’, the void between dimensional membranes.
Objects with mass can, theoretically, travel without limitations in the 'bulk', seeing as it a giant vacuum and Einstein's Theory of Relativity does not apply. Along with this the wall of the membrane of our universe was curved, allowing objects to cut across from one end to another, much like a wormhole.
So how does this relate to my theory of Dark Matter?
Well, the general idea of it is that dark matter is simply matter borrowed from other universes, intangible, on another plane from our dimension. It correlates with theory of supergravity, where it suggests that the force of gravity is borrowed from other dimensions, which would explain why it is so weak in comparison to other forces. The theoretical particle, 'graviton' has a spin of 2, and that it is detached from a dimensional plane, allowing it to seep through without binding to it.
Now consider the Big Bang where, at one point in spacetime, was a massive explosion that propels mass out of nothing and causing it to expand across our plane. Where did this mass come from? Stephen Hawking states that mass cannot come from nothing, it is mathematically impossible. The most plausible of answer is that mass had come from other dimensions, likely from the collision of two super-universes, in result of the explosion I believe we are merely debris cast aside from that
(Image credit by me)
What makes me so certain that we are but debris of two super-giants? For one, it takes a lot of mass to expel mass, and also taking the fact that the mass of black holes contain considerably more than the amount of mass of the star that was present before it. When a star explodes, the same process happens just as a hadron collider does when smashing two protons together. It creates a rip in our dimension. However, the force of a star exploding is obviously much greater than the force of splitting a proton, and the hole created cannot be reversed as easily as it is being slowly pulled in to the other universe, unlike the neutrino that was thrown out of our universe yet still bound to us as it wasn't thrown that far.
What is also notable is the formation of a galaxy, and it is believed that there is a super massive black hole at the centre of one. Understandably so, because it is the pull of the intense gravitational force at the centre that is pulling stars inside. It is also noted that the presence of dark matter is higher around galaxies.
What happens with a black hole is like a process of reverse-osmosis (osmosis being where high water concentration passes through a semi-permeable membrane to low water concentration).
(Image credit here.)
So if dark matter is just the gravitational pull from the higher concentration solution (the universe with greater mass than ours), and without the 'tear' to connect us to that membrane, we cannot 'touch' dark matter because it is not matter on our plane but yet we can still detect its force
Now consider the formation of how our universe is currently expanding:
(Image credit here.)
It is known that our universe, in contrary to initial belief, is actually expanding faster throughout time. Yet this is not understood yet. Take note of the structure.
Consider this: Imagine the ripple of a water droplet falling into a puddle. As you get closer to the point where the water droplet had fallen, the ripples are much more curved and eventually it evens out as you go further away. Now imagine that there are two water surfaces, and these two water surfaces are the membranes of two universes. Where the surfaces' ripples are closer, the greater the gravitational force.
(Image credit by me.)
How does this explain why our universe expansion rate is increasing? Simple enough: As the forces of gravity lessens, so does the quantity of 'dark matter'. It is thought that dark matter was much greater in presence around the time of origin, but a mysterious energy called 'dark energy' is overtaking and is believed to be propelling us further. In my theory, dark matter and dark energy is the same thing, the force of gravity weakening as we move further away from the gravitation pull of the other universe that is keeping our structure stable.
(Image credit here.)
(NOTE: TBC BUT SAVING IT FOR NOW AND DON'T WANT TO LOSE DRAFT. Also Kelly is calling me obsessed so I better stop for the night.)